NHMRC established the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Advisory Committee under section 39 of the National Health and Medical Research Council Act 1992 to advise the NHMRC Chief Executive Officer on the current needs for research and clinical guidance on ME/CFS. The Committee finalised its report for the NHMRC CEO in late April 2019. The report will assist her in considering future ME/CFS research priorities and clinical guidance. Outcomes of this process are expected to be announced by mid 2019.

Recent ME/CFS research funding announcements

On 27 March 2019, the Australian Government announced the allocation of $3 million for a targeted call for research funding through the NHMRC Medical Research Endowment Account to better understand the causes and mechanisms of ME/CFS. Further information is available here. This is in addition to the Australian Government’s funding of a grant through the Medical Research Future Fund (Targeted Health System and Community Organisation Research Program) to conduct a health economics study of the impacts and costs associated with ME/CFS. This grant closed on 10 April 2019. Further information is available here.   


Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME),  commonly referred to as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a complex and highly debilitating condition characterised by profound fatigue following exertion (that is not relieved by sleep or rest), unrefreshing sleep and cognitive impairment. Secondary symptoms may also include gastrointestinal disorders, muscle and joint pain and immune impairments. Post exertional malaise (PEM) is suggested as a cardinal feature of ME/CFS. 1,2

The aetiology of ME/CFS has not been found although many hypotheses exist.3 Diagnosis is also a challenge in the absence of a diagnostic test and lack of a universally accepted case definition among researchers and clinicians.4 Diagnosis currently relies on elimination of other similar disease patterns and self-reported symptom based criteria given by patients. Symptoms are often varied between patients and these diverse experiences make ME/CFS diagnosis and treatment challenging.

Terms of Reference

The ME/CFS Advisory Committee Terms of Reference were to advise the CEO of NHMRC on: 

  1. the status of national and international research into ME/CFS
  2. gaps in research on ME/CFS. This will include but not be limited to research on the immunology, psychology, microbiology and virology of the conditions, as well as any health services research
  3. the status of clinical guidance on ME/CFS available to doctors and health professionals
  4. requirements and opportunities for improved clinical guidance
  5. any other issue on ME/CFS that the NHMRC Chief Executive Officer may request.
  6. submissions received through the public consultation process.

NHMRC has well defined procedures for the formation of advisory committees which are based on obtaining the best experts available while ensuring conflicts of interest (real and perceived) are managed appropriately.

Disclosure of Interests of Members

Disclosure of Interests of Members PDF - See Downloads 

NHMRC asked each Committee member to document their interests, as part of the process of the establishment of any NHMRC committee. Members were asked to consider perceived interests as well as real interests.

Members were specifically asked to identify, to the best of their ability, work associated with ME/CFS research and clinical guidance including:

  • relevant financial interests;
  • relevant professional or organisational experience
  • other relationships or activities.

Throughout the project, members are required to inform NHMRC of any changes to their interests, and management strategies are put in place as needed.

Progress Update

ME/CFS Advisory Committee Meetings

Meeting One: 7 December 2017

Discussion focussed on: 

  • Identifying research gaps in ME/CFS by mapping existing literature, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses 
  • Discussion of diagnostic criteria and effective research translation for ME/CFS patients,  clinicians and health care workers 
  • Considerations and discussion surrounding diagnostic criteria in research to clarify patient cohort selection 
  • Highlighting gaps in international research informed by reports such as: Institute of Medicine (IOM) report (2015), US National Institute of Health (NIH) request for information (2016) and NIH Pathways to prevention workshop (2014) 
  • Potential collaboration opportunities with United States, Canada and the United Kingdom on guideline development and research activities 
  • Importance of adolescent and paediatric ME/CFS support in clinical and educational environments 

The Advisory Committee members discussed the need to map existing literature, including  systematic reviews and meta-analyses  to identify gaps in ME/CFS research. Members also began discussing  potential collaboration opportunities with Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States on ME/CFS research and guidelines.

Ms Sally Missing has been added to the membership of the Committee as a support person and/or proxy to Ms Simone Eyssens in the event that she is unable to attend meetings.

Meeting Two: 19 March 2018

Discussion focussed on: 

  • Continued conversation of the mapped literature, international research and clinical guidance activities, with the aim of progressing advice to the NHMRC Chief Executive Officer
  • Advising that ME/CFS research funding should be based on three key principles: Collaboration, Consistency and Capacity
  • The options for international collaboration and biobanks
  • The UK's National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) project to update its clinical practice guidelines, as well as NHMRC's standard processes to develop and revise clinical practice guidelines
  • Agreeing to further deliberations out of session in preparation for the third meeting in May 2018.

Meeting three: 29 May 2018

Discussion focussed on: 

  • Articulating an accepted description or definition for ME/CFS for NHMRC to facilitate research and clinical guideline development 
  • Agreeing on key diagnostic criteria, given the current lack of a specific and sensitive diagnostic test which has in turn hampered research on pathogenesis, treatment, and conceptualisation of ME/CFS as a distinct condition. Members have advised that NHMRC should not develop any new criteria or definitions, but rather agree on what is currently being used internationally, and clarifying this for use in Australia
  • Opportunities for clinical guideline development and the role that guidelines take in promoting clinician awareness of the condition as well as influencing patient outcomes.
  • Agreeing on some options to promote current good quality clinical advice on NHMRC’s website, as an interim until NHMRC can fully consider formal guideline adaptation or development.

Meeting Four: 21 June 2018

Discussion focussed on: 

  • Agreeing on an already existing definition that reflects the current understanding of ME/CFS for clinicians and researchers but noting the different context of clinical diagnosis and research based definitions   
  • Clarifying diagnostic criteria commonly used in research internationally and within Australia to help guide future research consistency and capacity for collaboration. Members have advised NHMRC that there is currently no perfect diagnostic criteria, but agreed that the Canadian consensus criteria are internationally one of the most commonly used criteria for research
  • Opportunities for building research capacity for ME/CFS research translation and health services research
  • Resources for clinicians and patients to be placed on the NHMRC webpage.     

Meeting Five 16 August 2018 and Meeting Six 21 September 2018

Discussion focussed on: 

  • Refining the Draft Report to CEO, incorporating advice and feedback on the status of ME/CFS research nationally and internationally, the issues and challenges faced by the ME/CFS community, clinicians and researchers
  • research funding and clinical guidance recommendations for ME/CFS in Australia
  • guiding principles that should underpin these recommendations
  • the parameters and questions for public consultation on the Draft Report to CEO.

Meeting Seven: 18 October 2018

Discussion focussed on: 

  • Further refinement of the draft Report to the CEO, including:
    • How clinical resources have been viewed and used historically  
    • The evidence base of ME/CFS national and international clinical guidelines
    • The challenges of treatment and management strategies, given the complexity of the condition and lack of an objective diagnostic tool
    • The challenges around effectively communicating the opportunities that emerging research is creating.
  • Public consultation, including:
    • Recognition of the invaluable input the community provides through public consultation
    • The processes and procedures  for managing public consultation submissions, including in-scope and out of scope submissions
    • Noting that this is not usual practice for NHMRC on products other than guidelines. 

Draft Report released for Public consultation 

The Advisory Committee’s Draft Report to the NHMRC CEO on the research and clinical guidance needs of ME/CFS in Australia was released for a 60-day public consultation from 21 December 2018 to 18 February 2019. The public consultation draft of the Report is available here

Meeting Eight: 21 March 2019

The Committee met to review the public consultation submissions and to finalise the Report. The Report to the NHMRC CEO was finalised in late April 2019.

Information for Clinicians

British Medical Journal - Best Practice guideline – Beyond ME/CFS: redefining an Illness (2017)

Frontiers in Paediatrics - ME/CFS Diagnosis and Management in Young People: A Primer (2017) 
(A note for clinicians: this article contains a Clinical Diagnostic Worksheet for use at initial and subsequent consultations) 

Canadian Medical Association – Toward optimised practice –Identification and symptom management of ME/CFS - Clinical Practice Guidelines (2016) 
(A note for clinicians: this article contains a ME/CFS Symptom Checklist): See Downloads. 

Institute of Medicine – Beyond ME/CFS Redefining an Illness: Report guide for Clinicians (2015)
(A note for clinicians: Questionnaires and tools for assessing symptoms of ME/CFS are provided on pages 13-14.)   

ME International Consensus Primer for Medical Practitioners: International Consensus Panel 2012 - See Downloads 

International Association for CFS/ME (IACFSME) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome /Myalgic Encephalomyelitis – Primer for Clinical practitioners (2014 ed)

A patient centred approach - Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2013) 

ME/CFS fact sheet – Better Health Channel a resource for GPs: See Downloads 

Treating Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2011): See Downloads 

ME/CFS guidelines: Management Guidelines for General practitioners – Government of South Australia (2004) (A note for clinicians: this article contains a ME/CFS Symptom Checklist): See Downloads 

Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Clinical practice guidelines (2002)

Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in these documents are those of the authors and do not represent the official position of the National Health and Medical Research Council.  The resources are listed by year of publication and as such do not imply any NHMRC preference or priority. 

Information for ME/CFS Patients and Carers

Bridges and Pathways - http://bridgesandpathways.org.au/index.php/mecfs/ 

Emerge Australia - https://emerge.org.au/ 

ME/CFS Australia (SA) http://www.sacfs.asn.au/

ME/CFS Australia  https://mecfs.org.au/about-us/related-organisations

U.S Center for Disease control (CDC) ME/CFS https://www.cdc.gov/me-cfs/

Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in these documents are those of the authors and do not represent the official position of the National Health and Medical Research Council.  The resources are listed alphabetically and as such do not imply any NHMRC preference or priority. 


For further information please contact NHMRC at ME_CFS@nhmrc.gov.au


  1. Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2015. Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue Syndrome: Redefining an illness. Washington, DC. The National Academies Press. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK274235/
  2. Carruthers, BM, Van de Sande, MI, De Meirleir, KL et al, 2011. ‘Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International consensus criteria,’ Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 270, is. 4, pp. 327-338. 
  3. Monro, JA & Puri, BK, 2018. ‘A Molecular Neurobiological Approach to understanding the aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or Systemic exertion intolerance disease) with treatment implications,’ Molecular Neurobiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-0928-9
  4. Johnston, S, Staines, D, Marshall-Gradisnik, S, 2016. Epidemiological characteristics of chronic fatigue syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis in Australian patients,’ Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 8 pp. 97-107. 
  5. Baraniuk, JN, 2017. ‘Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: BMJ Best Practice guideline.’ British Medical Journal, Accessed May 2018. https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/277


Professional knowledge and experience. Experience with high level government committees. 


  • Director of the University of Queensland Thoracic Research Centre 
  • Thoracic and Sleep Physician at The Prince Charles Hospital 
  • Deputy Co-Chair of Medical Services Advisory Committee 
  • Has held numerous state and national advisory committee roles. 
  • Invited speaker to many conferences around the world - some conferences are sponsored by pharmaceutical companies.


Professional knowledge and experience.


  • Medical Practitioner and Chair of Diabetes Specific Interest Network 
  • Member of ME/CFS/FM Support Association in Queensland and has given a talk for this society 
  • Speaker on stress and insomnia at various locations, sponsored by Sanofi (pharmaceutical company).


Professor in Ethics at the University of Adelaide. Co-authored chapter “Three approaches to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in UK, Australia and Canada: Lessons for Democratic Policy”.

Professional knowledge and experience. 


  • No interests to declare 
  • Professor, School of Humanities, University of Adelaide 
  • Has been on numerous state and federal government Ethics Committees.

Associate Professor

Exercise Scientist and Accredited Exercise Physiologist; Program Lead-Clinical Exercise Science, University of the Sunshine Coast.

Professional knowledge and experience in ME/CFS research.


  • No interests to declare
  • Program Lead – Clinical Exercise Science, School of Health and Sports Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast
  • Current research interests include ME/CFS immune responses and rehabilitation; chronic liver disease exercise and dietary effects on immune function, physical capacity and life expectancy and exercise prescriptions for cancer patients.

Lloyd AM

Director, Viral Immunology Systems Program in the Kirby Institute; Infectious Disease Physician.

Professional knowledge and experience in ME/CFS research.


  • Research grants received in relation to ME/CFS research from NHMRC, Centre for Disease control (US), Mason Foundation, Australian Rotary Foundation and Meat & Livestock Australia. 
  • Received support for travel and accommodation for a Gilead (biopharmaceutical company) sponsored speaker tour 
  • Leads the Viral Immunology Systems Program in the Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales 
  • Infectious disease physician and an epidemiology, virology and immunology researcher.


Director, National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Griffith University. Research focused towards identifying biomarkers of ME/CFS.

Professional knowledge and experience in ME/CFS research.


  • Co-Inventor of a screening/diagnostic test for ME/CFS 
  • Director of National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Griffith University 
  • Research focused towards identifying biomarkers of ME/CFS for translation into the clinical environment 
  • Head Reviewer and Chairperson for National Institutes of Health (NIH) Centre for Research Excellence Applications for ME/CFS in USA.


Senior Consultant Physician, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne. Has research interest in CFS in children and adolescents.
Professional knowledge and experience in ME/CFS research.


  • Received support for travel and accommodation for NIH Special Emphasis Panel for ME/CFS in USA and New Zealand ME/CFS Society lecture tour in 2014. 
  • Part of the International Committee for the Case Definition of CFS, CFS Service Review Advisory Group. 
  • Senior Consultant Physician, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne.


  • Founding member of #MEAction Network Australia and Emerge Australia member
  • Consumer representative.



No interests to declare.


Ms Sally Missing has been added to the membership of the Committee as a support person and/or proxy to Ms Simone Eyssens in the event that she is unable to attend meetings.


President, Emerge Australia.


President, ME/CFS Australia (SA).
Consumer representative.


President, ME/CFS Australia (SA).